IMG 6627

TGA is a powerful analytical technique that involves the controlled heating of a sample and the measurement of its weight changes. This process is conducted in either an inert or oxidizing atmosphere, providing valuable insights into the composition and thermal stability of the sample. The applications of TGA are extensive and include the assessment of moisture and volatiles, composition analysis, evaluation of thermal stability, examination of oxidative stability, and determination of decomposition kinetics.

Applicable Standards:

ASTM E473 Terminology Relating to Thermal Analysis
ASTM E1131 Standard Test Method for Compositional Analysis by Thermogravimetry
ASTM E1582 Standard Practice for Calibration of Temperature Scale for Thermogravimetry
ASTM E1641 Standard Test Method for Decomposition Kinetics by Thermogravimetry
ASTM E1868 Standard Test Method for Loss-On-Drying by Thermogravimetry
ASTM E2008 Standard Test Method for Volatility Rate by Thermogravimetry
ASTM E2040 Test Method for Mass Scale Calibration of Thermogravimetric Analyzers
ASTM E2105 Standard Practice for General Techniques of Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) Coupled With Infrared Analysis (TGA/IR)
ASTM E2403 Standard Test Method for Sulfated Ash of Organic Materials by Thermogravimetry
ASTM E2550 Standard Test Method for Thermal Stability by Thermogravimetry
ASTM D3850 Standard Test Method for Rapid Thermal Degradation of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials By Thermogravimetric Method (TGA)

Principle of Operation

The TGA technique involves monitoring the temperature and mass loss of a specimen as it is exposed to a specific environment and heated at a controlled rate. This method allows for a detailed analysis of how the specimen behaves at different temperatures.

Test Method

The size and shape of the specimens can vary, with 2 to 20 mg being suitable depending on the configuration. The temperature is typically increased at a consistent rate or adjusted to maintain a constant mass loss. Test can be done in different atmospheric conditions, including ambient air, vacuum, inert gas, oxidizing or reducing gases, corrosive gases, carburizing gases, vapors of liquids, or even a self-generated atmosphere. Additionally, the test can be conducted under various pressure conditions, such as high vacuum, high pressure, constant pressure, or controlled pressure.

Data Interpretation

The collected data from a thermal reaction is used to create a TGA curve, which illustrates the mass or percentage of the initial mass on the y-axis plotted against temperature or time on the x-axis. By taking the first derivative of the TGA curve, referred to as the DTG curve, inflection points can be identified. These inflection points are helpful for conducting detailed interpretations and differential thermal analysis.

In summary, you may obtain:

  • mass changes vs. temperature
  • mass changes vs. time
  • reactivity involving air, oxygen, or other reactive gases
  • Lumped decomposition or reaction kinetics

Why perform TGA test?

Performing TGA analysis in process safety is crucial for several reasons. TGA provides valuable insights into the thermal stability and decomposition behavior of materials under different process conditions by measuring changes in mass as a function of temperature or time. This analysis aids in identifying potential hazards, such as exothermic reactions, ignition, or release of toxic gases, associated with high temperatures. TGA also helps in evaluating the compatibility of materials and optimizing process parameters to minimize risks and enhance safety. By conducting TGA tests, process engineers can better design and control processes, select suitable materials, and develop effective safety measures, ensuring the protection of personnel, infrastructure, and the environment.

Why use us?

  • Our skilled team of experts has comprehensive expertise in conducting thermogravimetric tests, guaranteeing accurate and reliable results.
  • We employ state-of-the-art equipment and techniques to carry out precise and sensitive measurements, ensuring thorough analysis of the thermal decomposition and weight changes of your materials.
  • Our adherence to rigorous testing protocols and quality control measures ensures consistent and dependable outcomes.
  • We provide detailed analysis and interpretation of the collected data, offering valuable insights and recommendations tailored to your specific application or research objectives.


1. What is Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)?

Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) is a technique used to measure the change in weight of a sample as it is subjected to a controlled temperature program. It provides information on the composition, thermal stability, and decomposition behavior of materials, making it valuable in process safety evaluations.

2. How does TGA work?

In TGA, a sample is heated in a controlled atmosphere while its weight change is continuously monitored. As the temperature increases, the sample may lose weight due to decomposition, evaporation, or other chemical reactions. The weight loss or gain is tracked over time, providing valuable information on the material’s thermal behavior.

3. What are the applications of TGA in process safety?

TGA finds applications in process safety assessments by providing insights into the thermal stability and decomposition behavior of materials. It can help identify potential exothermic reactions, decomposition products, and the temperature range at which hazards can arise. TGA data aids in designing safe operating conditions and selecting appropriate mitigation strategies.

4. What type of information can be obtained from TGA measurements?

TGA measurements can provide valuable information, including:

  • Identification of thermal stability and decomposition temperatures of materials.
  • Quantification of weight loss or gain as a function of temperature or time.
  • Assessment of the potential for hazardous gas evolution during heating.

5. Can TGA data be used for process optimization?

TGA data is primarily used for evaluating the thermal hazards of materials. However, the information obtained from TGA experiments, such as decomposition rates or temperature ranges, can be used to optimize process conditions to prevent undesired decomposition or reaction events. It helps in designing reactions or selecting materials that can withstand desired operating conditions while minimizing potential safety risks.